Rangpur is a district in Northern Bangladesh. It is a part of the Rangpur Division.Under the Rangpur Division (one of eight divisions) composed of eight districts of northern Bangladesh.
Under the Rangpur Division (one of eight divisions) composed of eight districts of northern Bangladesh, the District of Rangpur is bordered on the north by Nilphamari District, on the south by Gaibandha District, on the east by Kurigram, and on the west by Dinajpur district. Rangpur town is the divisional headquarter. The soil composition is mainly alluvial soil (80%) of the Teesta River basin, and the remaining is barind soil. The temperature ranges from 32 degrees Celsius to 11 degrees Celsius, and the annual rainfall averages 2931mm.
The main transportation methods here are by air, rail, or road. To travel by air, people have to first travel to Dhaka Domestic Airport and then fly to Saidpur Airport (DAC-SPD route). Seven flights travel this route daily. The US-Bangla Airlines, Novoair, and the Biman offer the flights. The distance by airways from Dhaka to Saidpur is 254.28 km. By rail, the district is accessible from Kamalapur Railway Station which runs a daily-except-Sunday train “Rangpur Express” to Rangpur Railway Station. The total journey by rail is of 453 km. By road, travelers have to travel 307 km using the Savar-Kaliakair route or 327 km using the Tongi-Mawna route, Shamu.
Rangpur was conquered by the army of Raja Man Singh, a commander of the Mughal emperor, and Akbar, in 1575, but it was only until 1686 that it was fully integrated into the Mughal Empire. Place names such as Mughalbasa (‘Mughal locality’) and Mughalhat (‘Mughal market’) bear testimony to the Mughal association and past of Rangpur and its hinterland. Later on, Rangpur passed under the control of “Sarker” of Ghoraghat. During the period of the East India Company, the Fakir-Sannyasi rebellion took place. The Greater Rangpur district was divided in five districts in 1984.
The population of the district is 2.9 million according to the 2011 census. There has been a 1.2% annual population growth between 2001 and 2011. The population density of the area is 1,200/km².
According to the 2011 Bangladesh census, Rangpur District had a population of 2,881,086, of which 1,443,816 were males and 1,437,270 females. Rural population was 2,438,373 (84.63%) while the urban population was 442,713 (15.37%). Rangpur district had a literacy rate of 48.60% for the population 7 years and above: 51.30% for males and 45.90% for females Muslims make up 90.39% of the population, while Hindus are 8.98% of the population. Ethnic minorities were 18,561.
Rangpur town, covering an area of around 43 square kilometers, lies on the bank of the Ghaghat river and was turned into a municipality back in 1869. Rangpur City Corporation, which was founded in 1979, has a population of 294,000. The city has an area of 50.7/km²
Begum Rokeya University is the only university in the Rangpur district. The Rangpur Medical College, is one of the major government medical colleges in Bangladesh. Carmichael College, established in 1916 by some leading zamindars, is a postgraduate college offering courses in 14 subjects in the faculties of arts, social science, science, and commerce.The most renowned educational institution in this region is Rangpur Cadet College.
Other renowned institutions include Cantonment Public School & College, Rangpur (CPSCR), Rangpur Government College, Police Lines School and College and Rangpur Zilla School. Zilla School is established in 1832, this higher secondary school is known for the quality of education it offers. Other prominent educational institutions include Rangpur Government College, Begum Rokeya College, and Govt. Commercial Institute.
Besides there is one polytechnic institute, one vocational institute, around 282 high schools, 722 government primary schools, 38 junior high schools, 193 NGO (Non-Government Organization) operated schools and almost 370 Madrasahs in Rangpur. Rangpur Model College is now an honors college.
Places of interest
Just south of the city of Rangpur lies the Tajhat Zamindar’s palace. After the end of the British Raj, the building was abandoned and decayed rapidly, although it was used for a few years as a courthouse during the 1980s. In the year 2004, it was largely restored and turned into a museum with ancient inscriptions, art, and coins from the area on display. RDRS (Rangpur and Dinajpur Rural Service) Bangladesh, an NGO in northwest Bangladesh, has a large office and guesthouse/convention center in the town of Rangpur.
There is an ancient auditorium named ‘Town Hall’ at the center of the city, where different cultural programs are held. In the great Rangpur region, no economic development took place until the 90’s, mainly because of the yearly flooding the region used to see before the making of “Teesta Barrage.”
“Bhinno Jogot” is a theme park and a picnic spot which is situated 15 kilometers from Rangpur Town.
Jadu Nibash in Radhaballav was the house of former senior minister of Bangladesh, Mashiur Rahman Jadu Mia.